Total GDP in the Former Soviet Union

Year Country
Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Estonia Georgia Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Latvia Lithuania Moldova Tajikistan Turkmenistan Ukraine Uzbekistan
1992 0.000388 0.000944 0.002405 0.000483 0.000661 0.003792 0.000461 0.000577 0.000874 0.000584 0.000364 0.000396 0.009408 0.002843
1993 0.000346 0.000711 0.002177 0.000433 0.000457 0.003371 0.000381 0.000500 0.000717 0.000565 0.000299 0.000394 0.007904 0.002720
1994 0.000354 0.000554 0.001864 0.000412 0.000397 0.002857 0.000295 0.000496 0.000627 0.000378 0.000228 0.000316 0.005904 0.002499
1995 0.000365 0.000472 0.001613 0.000425 0.000394 0.002533 0.000270 0.000476 0.000637 0.000361 0.000207 0.000283 0.005011 0.002393
1996 0.000372 0.000460 0.001597 0.000433 0.000422 0.002451 0.000278 0.000470 0.000646 0.000327 0.000154 0.000291 0.004342 0.002345
1997 0.000370 0.000468 0.001710 0.000465 0.000449 0.002397 0.000294 0.000492 0.000672 0.000319 0.000151 0.000248 0.004050 0.002371
1998 0.000390 0.000505 0.001819 0.000487 0.000454 0.002307 0.000295 0.000512 0.000709 0.000293 0.000156 0.000260 0.003896 0.002426
1999 0.000389 0.000524 0.001820 0.000470 0.000451 0.002290 0.000295 0.000506 0.000678 0.000274 0.000156 0.000293 0.003760 0.002446
2000 0.000393 0.000556 0.001839 0.000493 0.000439 0.002403 0.000297 0.000509 0.000672 0.000267 0.000162 0.000295 0.003803 0.002425
2001 0.000421 0.000597 0.001880 0.000512 0.000449 0.002664 0.000306 0.000533 0.000700 0.000277 0.000173 0.000301 0.004056 0.002468
2002 0.000469 0.000639 0.001912 0.000526 0.000459 0.002832 0.000296 0.000553 0.000724 0.000289 0.000186 0.000292 0.004135 0.002486
2003 0.000515 0.000685 0.001972 0.000545 0.000491 0.002985 0.000306 0.000579 0.000770 0.000297 0.000199 0.000291 0.004369 0.002497
2004 0.000542 0.000718 0.002089 0.000552 0.000495 0.003112 0.000311 0.000600 0.000786 0.000303 0.000209 0.000291 0.004661 0.002559
2005 0.000590 0.000868 0.002185 0.000578 0.000519 0.003265 0.000297 0.000633 0.000810 0.000312 0.000213 0.000314 0.004579 0.002618
2006 0.000633 0.001107 0.002280 0.000605 0.000538 0.003428 0.000291 0.000670 0.000826 0.000310 0.000215 0.000331 0.004662 0.002664
2007 0.000684 0.001315 0.002351 0.000620 0.000575 0.003545 0.000299 0.000698 0.000871 0.000303 0.000220 0.000349 0.004779 0.002770
2008 0.000714 0.001421 0.002529 0.000573 0.000576 0.003573 0.000317 0.000660 0.000872 0.000319 0.000231 0.000390 0.004771 0.002947
2009 0.000615 0.001558 0.002543 0.000490 0.000557 0.003630 0.000327 0.000568 0.000746 0.000301 0.000241 0.000416 0.004083 0.003198
2010 0.000596 0.001551 0.002597 0.000476 0.000560 0.003692 0.000309 0.000523 0.000719 0.000306 0.000244 0.000431 0.004032 0.003290
2011 0.000603 0.001508 0.002649 0.000498 0.000580 0.003827 0.000316 0.000531 0.000737 0.000315 0.000241 0.000471 0.004098 0.003443
2012 0.000631 0.001505 0.002631 0.000509 0.000603 0.003921 0.000308 0.000543 0.000747 0.000306 0.000253 0.000510 0.004012 0.003636
2013 0.000636 0.001549 0.002582 0.000503 0.000606 0.004044 0.000333 0.000551 0.000751 0.000324 0.000265 0.000547 0.003903 0.003822
2014 0.000636 0.001548 0.002550 0.000500 0.000617 0.004100 0.000335 0.000548 0.000751 0.000324 0.000274 0.000586 0.003578 0.004013
2015 0.000620 0.001553 0.002446 0.000498 0.000626 0.004069 0.000337 0.000549 0.000754 0.000316 0.000279 0.000626 0.003310 0.004213
2016 0.000620 0.001553 0.002446 0.000498 0.000626 0.004069 0.000337 0.000549 0.000754 0.000316 0.000279 0.000626 0.003310 0.004213

Real Housing Prices in the Former Soviet Union

Real housing prices, 2000-2006 Real housing prices, 2000-2006
Year Estonia Latvia Lithuania (EUR) Ukraine (USD)
in absolute amount annual percent change in absolute amount annual percent change in absolute amount annual percent change in absolute amount annual percent change
2000 4018.67 - - - 3900 - - -
2001 5098 0.26858 - - 3938.91 0.00997629 - -
2002 6379.58 0.251388 - - 4121.69 0.0464038 - -
2003 7107.77 0.114144 - - 4464.42 0.083153 746.417 -
2004 8810.32 0.239534 154.234 - 5393.74 0.208163 994 0.331696
2005 11055.7 0.254853 285.67 0.852192 8024.46 0.487734 1610.58 0.620305
2006 16113.8 0.457519 425.175 0.488341 9442.38 0.1767 2466.67 0.531536
Total percent change 1.52585 1.75669 1.2909 2.30468

Crises of FSU countries

Type of crisis
Country Year
Moldova 1998 sovereign external debt crisis
2002
Ukraine 1997 banking crisis
1998-2000 sovereign external debt crisis
2008 banking crisis

External Debt to GNP by Country, 1992-2000

Year Country
Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Estonia Georgia Kazakhstan Kyrgyz Republic Latvia Lithuania Moldova Tajikistan Turkmenistan Ukraine Uzbekistan
1992 n.a. n.a. n.a. 0.013995028720406227 0.01765551314393063 0.0013061916918417227 0.001187103771524859 0.010149354660416745 0.004888001708300054 0.013642522492742207 0.003709694694910792 n.a. 0.006023901377526689 0.016676728157664033
1993 0.066471 0.007864 0.035959 0.039578 0.173387 0.067106 0.068061 0.044215 0.054396 0.062194 0.127951 0.0585469 0.055416 0.187464
1994 0.090864 0.034309 0.063414 0.047844 0.890828 0.141699 0.142574 0.068282 0.086068 0.185678 0.205671 0.0920768 0.108157 0.190736
1995 0.128579 0.111532 0.083343 0.059760 0.683111 0.189920 0.189627 0.093932 0.119657 0.226898 0.281771 0.0682589 0.174530 0.175751
1996 0.325417 0.140748 0.051161 0.351707 0.451071 0.140127 0.299498 0.305437 0.173378 0.484331 0.706526 0.313358 0.216845 0.171205
1997 0.388879 0.130034 0.048555 0.504528 0.394904 0.186591 0.790856 0.322617 0.385775 0.547374 1.194856 0.640314 0.224886 0.187978
1998 0.416366 0.159876 0.044745 0.503306 0.441017 0.278617 0.964442 0.378635 0.397603 0.615713 0.993883 0.78038 0.318503 0.214615
1999 0.475305 0.230297 0.036603 0.495473 0.565004 0.373510 1.482363 0.468029 0.454765 0.848902 1.101958 n.a. 0.453935 0.274913
2000 0.464674 0.240656 0.028395 0.711516 0.536855 0.390793 1.495078 0.470810 0.436604 0.908545 1.249873 n.a. 0.394380 0.316409

Russian Financial Crises, 1800-2014

Russian financial crises, 1800-2014 Russian financial crises, 1800-2014
Criterion The rate
Inflation crisis 1856 Annual inflation above 20 percent 0.23
1868 Annual inflation above 20 percent 0.225
1878 Annual inflation above 20 percent 0.269
1880 Annual inflation above 20 percent 0.341
1891 Annual inflation above 20 percent 0.311
1907 Annual inflation above 20 percent 0.269
1918 Annual inflation above 20 percent 7.76623
1919 Annual inflation above 20 percent 12.2593
1920 Annual inflation above 20 percent 5.70391
1921 Annual inflation above 20 percent 10.5
1922 Annual inflation above 20 percent 121.986
1923 Annual inflation above 20 percent 135.347
1924 Annual inflation above 20 percent 6.38955
1930 Annual inflation above 20 percent 0.238
1931 Annual inflation above 20 percent 0.361
1932 Annual inflation above 20 percent 0.848
1933 Annual inflation above 20 percent 0.497
1935 Annual inflation above 20 percent 0.294
1940 Annual inflation above 20 percent 0.235
1946 Annual inflation above 20 percent 0.411
1947 Annual inflation above 20 percent 0.46
1993 Annual inflation above 20 percent 8.74622
1994 Annual inflation above 20 percent 3.07634
1995 Annual inflation above 20 percent 1.97471
1996 Annual inflation above 20 percent 0.47742
1998 Annual inflation above 20 percent 0.27675
1999 Annual inflation above 20 percent 0.85742
2000 Annual inflation above 20 percent 0.20776
2001 Annual inflation above 20 percent 0.21461
Currency crisis 1819 Annual depreciation of 15 percent or higher 0.165
1877 Annual depreciation of 15 percent or higher 0.169
1891 Annual depreciation of 15 percent or higher 0.204
1914 Annual depreciation of 15 percent or higher 0.228
1915 Annual depreciation of 15 percent or higher 0.182
1917 Annual depreciation of 15 percent or higher 1.31098
1918 Annual depreciation of 15 percent or higher 0.873475
1919 Annual depreciation of 15 percent or higher 5.67742
1920 Annual depreciation of 15 percent or higher 3.29412
1921 Annual depreciation of 15 percent or higher 14.2383
1922 Annual depreciation of 15 percent or higher 112.347
1923 Annual depreciation of 15 percent or higher 45.7583
1924 Annual depreciation of 15 percent or higher 241.128
1928 Annual depreciation of 15 percent or higher 17.741
1933 Annual depreciation of 15 percent or higher 0.568
1934 Annual depreciation of 15 percent or higher 1.802
1946 Annual depreciation of 15 percent or higher 3.71698
1947 Annual depreciation of 15 percent or higher 2.6
1948 Annual depreciation of 15 percent or higher 0.444444
1949 Annual depreciation of 15 percent or higher 3.07692
1956 Annual depreciation of 15 percent or higher 0.279
1957 Annual depreciation of 15 percent or higher 0.273
1960 Annual depreciation of 15 percent or higher 0.579
1962 Annual depreciation of 15 percent or higher 0.231
1965 Annual depreciation of 15 percent or higher 0.444
1966 Annual depreciation of 15 percent or higher 0.192
1967 Annual depreciation of 15 percent or higher 0.241
1975 Annual depreciation of 15 percent or higher 0.199
1981 Annual depreciation of 15 percent or higher 0.355
1983 Annual depreciation of 15 percent or higher 0.183
1987 Annual depreciation of 15 percent or higher 0.289
1988 Annual depreciation of 15 percent or higher 0.355
1989 Annual depreciation of 15 percent or higher 0.897
1990 Annual depreciation of 15 percent or higher 1.54545
1991 Annual depreciation of 15 percent or higher 3.65429
1992 Annual depreciation of 15 percent or higher 1.76243
1993 Annual depreciation of 15 percent or higher 2.00482
1994 Annual depreciation of 15 percent or higher 1.84683
1995 Annual depreciation of 15 percent or higher 0.307042
1996 Annual depreciation of 15 percent or higher 0.198276
1998 Annual depreciation of 15 percent or higher 2.46477
1999 Annual depreciation of 15 percent or higher 0.307506
2008 Annual depreciation of 15 percent or higher 0.197
2014 Annual depreciation of 15 percent or higher 0.719
Domestic debt crisis 1917-1918 Default or rescheduling on domestic debt -
1947 Default or rescheduling on domestic debt -
1957 Default or rescheduling on domestic debt -
1998-1999 Default or rescheduling on domestic debt -
External debt crisis 1839 Default or rescheduling on foreign debt -
1885 Default or rescheduling on foreign debt -
1918-1986 Default or rescheduling on foreign debt -
1991-2000 Default or rescheduling on foreign debt -
Stock market crisis 1995 Real stock prices exceeding 25 percent (cumulative) -
1998 Real stock prices exceeding 25 percent (cumulative) -
2000 Real stock prices exceeding 25 percent (cumulative) -
2008 Real stock prices exceeding 25 percent (cumulative) -
2011 Real stock prices exceeding 25 percent (cumulative) -
2014 Real stock prices exceeding 25 percent (cumulative) -
Banking crisis (systemic / milder) 1862-1863 Bank runs that lead to the closure, merging or takeover by the public sector of one or more financial institutions (systemic) and if there are no such processes of an important financial institutions that marks the start of a string of similar outcomes for other financial institutions (milder) milder
1875 Bank runs that lead to the closure, merging or takeover by the public sector of one or more financial institutions (systemic) and if there are no such processes of an important financial institutions that marks the start of a string of similar outcomes for other financial institutions (milder) milder
1896 Bank runs that lead to the closure, merging or takeover by the public sector of one or more financial institutions (systemic) and if there are no such processes of an important financial institutions that marks the start of a string of similar outcomes for other financial institutions (milder) milder
1995 Bank runs that lead to the closure, merging or takeover by the public sector of one or more financial institutions (systemic) and if there are no such processes of an important financial institutions that marks the start of a string of similar outcomes for other financial institutions (milder) milder
1998 Bank runs that lead to the closure, merging or takeover by the public sector of one or more financial institutions (systemic) and if there are no such processes of an important financial institutions that marks the start of a string of similar outcomes for other financial institutions (milder) milder
2008-2014 Bank runs that lead to the closure, merging or takeover by the public sector of one or more financial institutions (systemic) and if there are no such processes of an important financial institutions that marks the start of a string of similar outcomes for other financial institutions (milder) milder

Exports in US Dollars, 1924-1979

Years
Exports in US dollars
569.374271 1924
880.295375 1925
1072.677808 1926
1230.081617 1927
319.543069 1928
372.542966 1929
418.338994 1930
327.261500 1931
232.067511 1932
200.164660 1933
64.915788 1934
57.015026 1935
48.209503 1936
55.660377 1937
43.396226 1938
19.622642 1939
45.283019 1940
33.773585 1941
12.452830 1942
12.641509 1943
21.698113 1944
56.981132 1945
110.943396 1946
130.943396 1947
222.075472 1948
245.849057 1949
400.000000 1950
525.000000 1951
625.000000 1952
675.000000 1953
725.000000 1954
775.000000 1955
825.000000 1956
975.000000 1957
390.000000 1958
490.000000 1959
500.000000 1960
600.000000 1961
700.000000 1962
722.222222 1963
766.666667 1964
822.222222 1965
888.888889 1966
966.666667 1967
1066.666667 1968
1166.666667 1969
1277.777778 1970
1495.778046 1971
1531.966224 1972
2117.962466 1973
2774.798928 1974
3217.158177 1975
3753.351206 1976
4463.806971 1977
4785.522788 1978
5683.646113 1979
5683.646113 Percent change
-37.707182 1929-1932

Real Government Revenues Around Banking Crises

(index, t-4=100)

Russia Russia
start 1803 1998 1853 1992 1853
ent 1990 2007 1910 2007 2007
source Mitchell IMF-WEO RR IMF-WEO Unnamed: 4_level_3
units millions millions Unnamed: 2_level_4 Unnamed: 3_level_4 millions
description Central General (1853=100) (1997=100) Real
Series Revenue Revenue prices CPI revenue
1803 25.5
1804 25.75
1805 26.75
1806 26.5
1807 28.75
1808 30.75
1809 33.5
1810 44.5
1811 58.25
1812 59
1813 67.5
1814 74.25
1815 80.75
1816 86.75
1817 89.25
1818 91.75
1819 105.5
1820 111.75
1821 102.5
1822 97.75
1823 99.75
1824 95
1825 99.25
1826 97.5
1827 98.25
1828 96
1829 101
1830 98.25
1831 101.75
1832 112.75
1833 107.25
1834 107.5
1835 123.75
1836 130
1837 131.75
1838 135.75
1839 139.5
1840 155
1841 161
1842 173
1843 179
1844 186
1845 185
1846 192
1847
1848 195
1849 198
1850 202
1851 212
1852 222
1853 220 100 220
1854 213 83.0953 256.332
1855 209 82.4689 253.429
1856 232 101.468 228.644
1857 241 119.783 201.197
1858 248 108.187 229.233
1859 279 101.174 275.762
1860 278 108.941 255.184
1861 330 124.536 264.983
1862 291 134.803 215.87
1863 344 122.736 280.277
1864 324 113.776 284.77
1865 356 119.616 297.618
1866 345 129.496 266.418
1867 402 144.68 277.854
1868 406 177.23 229.081
1869 436 150.821 289.084
1870 460 122.497 375.519
1871 488 125.261 389.586
1872 490 145.334 337.154
1873 510 144.601 352.694
1874 531 141.533 375.178
1875 558 125.022 446.323
1876 540 133.353 404.94
1877 526 139.601 376.787
1878 601 177.196 339.173
1879 645 157.573 409.334
1880 629 211.261 297.736
1881 652 247.972 262.933
1882 704 173.879 404.88
1883 699 169.194 413.136
1884 705 160.724 438.641
1885 762 154.046 494.657
1886 781 137.24 569.077
1887 830 119.407 695.099
1888 899 115.178 780.533
1889 927 127.362 727.846
1890 944 139.786 675.316
1891 892 183.223 486.839
1892 970 206.753 469.159
1893 1046 160.599 651.313
1894 1154 125.271 921.202
1895 1256 117.823 1066.01
1896 1369 109.533 1249.85
1897 1416 127.851 1107.54
1898 1585 152.796 1037.33
1899 1673 157.034 1065.38
1900 1704 145.414 1171.83
1901 1799 143.668 1252.19
1902 1905 150.751 1263.67
1903 2032 145.853 1393.18
1904 2018 145.676 1385.27
1905 2025 154.083 1314.23
1906 2272 173.887 1306.6
1907 2342 220.621 1061.55
1908 2418 239.72 1008.68
1909 2526 218.263 1157.32
1910 2781 192.673 1443.38
1911 2952
1912 3106
1913 3417
1914 2898
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924 2134
1925 2872
1926 3893
1927 5056
1928 5888
1929 7497
1930 19886
1931 27109
1932 30050
1933 43191
1934 54155
1935
1936
1937
1938 127571
1939
1940 1.69e+07
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950 3.92e+07
1951
1952 4.56e+07
1953 5.1e+07
1954
1955 5.27e+07
1956 5.42e+07
1957
1958 6.61e+07
1959 7.25e+07
1960 7.62e+07
1961 7.73e+07
1962 8.31e+07
1963 8.82e+07
1964 9.43e+07
1965 1.02e+08
1966 1.06e+08
1967 1.17e+08
1968 1.3e+08
1969 1.31e+08
1970 1.57e+08
1971 1.66e+08
1972 1.75e+08
1973 1.88e+08
1974 2.01e+08
1975 2.19e+08
1976 2.32e+08
1977 2.48e+08
1978 2.68e+08
1979 2.81e+08
1980 3.03e+08
1981 3.21e+08
1982 3.53e+08
1983 3.58e+08
1984 3.77e+08
1985 3.91e+08
1986 4.19e+08
1987 4.35e+08
1988 4.69e+08
1989 4.02e+08
1990 4.72e+08
1991
1992 0.499
1993 4.864
1994 19.826
1995 58.977
1996 87.133
1997 100
1998 908.941 127.675 711.918
1999 1586.53 237.146 669.009
2000 2642.38 286.416 922.568
2001 3301.71 347.884 949.084
2002 4002.44 402.792 993.675
2003 4804.48 457.837 1049.39
2004 6240.01 507.682 1229.12
2005 8851.27 572.073 1547.23
2006 10625.8 627.442 1693.51
2007 13250.7 683.957 1937.36
2008
2009

Exchange Rate (Annual Depreciation Rate)

Annual depreciation rate
Year
1816 -12.238236
1817 -12.143990
1818 -3.743771
1819 16.492095
1820 -1.831376
1821 8.088873
1822 -8.323141
1823 6.837800
1824 -1.956540
1825 -9.008641
1826 7.345115
1827 -3.289859
1828 -3.303152
1829 -0.101668
1830 2.182503
1831 -2.039069
1832 1.890028
1833 -2.515274
1834 1.430877
1835 1.204493
1836 -2.845182
1837 -0.324942
1838 -5.109126
1839 3.074440
1840 -0.010118
1841 -0.202773
1842 1.503465
1843 -0.699611
1844 0.671102
1845 -0.607252
1846 -0.333531
1847 1.113463
1848 3.516277
1849 -2.675705
1850 -0.794853
1851 1.561588
1852 -2.777520
1853 0.475752
1854 8.327940
1855 0.060365
1856 -7.538187
1857 10.449886
1858 -2.543461
1859 1.227043
1860 -1.217891
1861 5.590267
1862 -4.038606
1863 3.936647
1864 10.941604
1865 -0.967176
1866 -1.901212
1867 -4.447464
1868 -1.364447
1869 13.837804
1870 -5.555387
1871 -7.967939
1872 1.566963
1873 2.672636
1874 -3.732394
1875 5.427017
1876 10.745737
1877 16.939490
1878 4.277948
1879 -4.594848
1880 -0.201594
1881 -2.957936
1882 8.942817
1883 -8.257387
1884 1.551500
1885 5.865051
1886 3.831624
1887 7.016840
1888 -9.986854
1889 -2.713983
1890 -13.446499
1891 20.368868
1892 -1.217753
1893 -6.208175
1894 -2.616302
1895 0.961448
1896 0.347802
1897 -0.316570
1898 0.078976
1899 -0.426354
1900 1.371989
1901 -0.504040
1902 -0.140820
1903 -0.467541
1904 0.679612
1905 1.966922
1906 -0.960437
1907 0.675645
1908 -0.732778
1909 -2.907802
1910 -0.400754
1911 0.336068
1912 0.332809
1913 -1.192834
1914 22.828879
1915 18.208739
1916 5.668452
1917 131.097671
1918 87.347544
1919 567.742178
1920 329.412224
1921 1423.831189
1922 11234.725610
1923 4575.828910
1924 24112.813212
1925 -30.805439
1926 5.710449
1927 -0.240318
1928 1774.086914
1929 0.740536
1930 -0.255383
1931 -0.152995
1932 -0.507396
1933 56.847260
1934 180.180916
1935 -0.001320
1936 -29.410887
1937 5.148299
1938 0.000000
1939 0.000000
1940 0.000000
1941 0.000000
1942 0.000000
1943 0.000000
1944 0.000000
1945 0.000000
1946 371.698113
1947 260.000000
1948 44.444444
1949 307.692308
1950 -48.113208
1951 -9.090909
1952 -12.000000
1953 13.636364
1954 -20.000000
1955 7.500000
1956 27.906977
1957 27.272727
1958 -14.285714
1959 -5.000000
1960 57.894737
1961 -27.777778
1962 23.076923
1963 -12.500000
1964 -25.714286
1965 40.384615
1966 19.178082
1967 24.137931
1968 -4.629630
1969 4.854369
1970 13.888889
1971 -25.203252
1972 -0.434783
1973 -16.375546
1974 -20.104439
1975 19.934641
1976 3.542234
1977 -1.315789
1978 8.000000
1979 11.111111
1980 -31.111111
1981 35.483871
1982 -7.380952
1983 18.251928
1984 6.521739
1985 12.857143
1986 -24.954792
1987 28.915663
1988 35.514019
1989 89.655172
1990 154.545455
1991 365.428571
1992 176.243094
1993 200.481928
1994 184.683240
1995 30.704225
1996 19.827586
1997 7.194245
1998 246.476510
1999 30.750605
2000 4.296296
2001 7.031250
2002 5.455873
2003 -7.330326
2004 -5.791305
2005 3.725580
2006 -8.516981
2007 -6.778676
2008 19.694291
2009 2.940055
2010 0.769404
2011 5.640994
2012 -5.663419
2013 7.758612
2014 71.890544

Expropriation of Ruble Debasement

Period covered Cummulative decline in silver content of ruble (percent) Largest debasement (percent) Largest debasement (year) Share of years in which there was a debasement of ruble ( ie a reduction in the silver content)
Unnamed: 0_level_1 Unnamed: 1_level_1 Unnamed: 2_level_1 All 15 % or greater
1761-1799 -42.3 -14.4 1798 44.7 0
1800-1899 -56.6 -41.3 1810 50.0 7